۱۳۸۹ شهریور ۴, پنجشنبه

Knee osteoarthritis

صفحه آرتروز زانو (Knee osteoarthritis) که در سایت ویکی پدیای انگلیسی (en.wikipedia) ایجاد کردم:
Knee osteoarthritis is a degenerative disease of the knee joint. It is more common in people older than 40 years. Women have greater chance to be affected.
Contents [hide]
1 The most important characteristic of knee osteoarthritis
2 Causes
3 Signs and symptoms
4 Common radiology findings
5 Treatment
6 Surgical operations in knee osteoarthritis
7 See also
8 References
[edit] The most important characteristic of knee osteoarthritis
The most important characteristic of knee osteoarthritis is degeneration of the articular cartilage in the knee joint. Knee osteoarthritis can be created in two areas. Two involved articular areas include:

Tibiofemoral joint (between the femur and the tibia)
Patellofemoral joint (between the femur and patella)
[edit] Causes
Some of osteoarthritis factors of the knee include:
Trauma
Elements injury of the knee joint
Tear of meniscus
Sprain or ligament injury
Joint capsule injury
Chondromalacia patella disease, Recurrent patella dislocation and Patella fracture
Interarticular fractures of the knee and knee dislocations
Arthritis (such as Rheumatoid arthritis, Infectious arthritis, etc)
Deformities of the knee joint that include:
-Genu varum
-Genu valgum
-Genu recurvatum (Knee hyperextension)
-Knee flexion deformity
 Ligamentous instability
Anterior cruciate ligament
Posterior cruciate ligament
Medial collateral ligament
Lateral collateral ligament
Lack of control of daily activities that lead to excessive stress to the knee area.
Obesity
Genetics factors
Osteochondritis dissecans disease
Meniscal cyst
Discoid meniscus
[edit] Signs and symptoms
Some of signs and symptoms associated with knee osteoarthritis include:
Pain that is caused by disease progression
Morning stiffness
Decreasing range of motion or Limitation of joint motion (in the advanced stages)
Muscle weakness and atrophy ( in cases of decreased range of motion)
Crepitus in joint motion
Sometimes joint effusion can is caused (in severe activities)
Knee deformity (in severe cases)
Sometimes baker's cyst is created in behind knee.
[edit] Common radiology findings
Joint space narrowing
Tibiofemoral joint space narrowing (generally,in the medial side is largely than the lateral side)
Patellofemoral joint space narrowing
Osteophyte formation at the joint margins
Sclerosis of the subchondral bone (new subchondral bone formation)
[edit] Treatment
Pharmacologic therapy
Weight loss (if obesity or overweight)
Control of daily activities. For example, the patients should avoid from prolonged sitting and standing, kneeling and or squatting.
Physical therapy. Aims of physical therapy include:
-Pain and spasm relief
-Reducing stiffness
-Muscles strengthening
-Increasing range of motion
-Increasing flexibility
-Gait training
-Balance improvement
-Patient education
-Increasing functional activities
Aerobic exercise programs
Hydrotherapy
Assistive devices
Surgical treatment (in severe cases)
[edit] Surgical operations in knee osteoarthritis
Surgical operations can include the following:
Joint replacement (Arthroplasty of the knee)
Patellectomy (excision of patella). When the degeneration in patellofemoral joint is severe, patellectomy operation may be done.
Osteotomy
Debridement(by arthroscopy or without arthroscopy). Debridement may be done for these knee problems:
-Damaged cartilage
-Damaged meniscus
-The presence of loose bodies in knee joint
-Osteophytes of the joint
-Synovial hypertrophy (by synovectomy)
Arthrodesis (Fusion)
[edit] See also
Knee
Knee pain
Osteoarthritis
Knee replacement
Joint replacement


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